History of Daxing district

Updated: 2019-02-26

Daxing district, located in the south part of Beijing, is the nearest suburb to Beijing. Downtown Daxing is 13 kilometers away from the city center. It is one of the first batches of satellite cities to be developed in the capital approved by the State Council in 1984. 

Name dates back to the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234)

Daxing has a long history. Daxing county was established in the Qin Dynasty (221-206BC) and it is one of the earliest established counties in China. Daxing district was formerly known as Ji county. It was built in the Jicheng area and was built by the Yan State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC) and the Warring States Period (475-221BC).

Ji county lasted until the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907-960).

The name Daxing can date back to Jin Dynasty (1115-1234). It is said that the name was given by the Prince of Hailing (Wanyan Liang). The name signifies that the territory is vast and prosperous, and the Jin Emperor will conquer the vast area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River.

The Daxing county of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties generally includes the eastern part of Beijing, the southeast of Changping district, the southwest of Shunyi district, the majority of Chaoyang district and the southeastern part of Daxing district. Due to its  jurisdiction, it is known as the "first county in China". Nanhaizi is an important royal garden in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) and a "green gem" left by Yongding River. Nanhaizi's "Nanyou Qiufeng" was one of the "Ten Scenes in Beijing" during the Ming and Qing dynasties. This is the place where Emperor Shunzhi and Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty received the Tibetan Buddhist monks.

'Fruit and vegetable garden' for Beijing since the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)

Daxing is known as the "hometown of watermelon". In addition to watermelon, Daxing is also renowned for its peach, pear, plum, apricot and jujube trees. According to historical records, fruit trees accounted for a certain proportion in Daxing in the Yuan and Ming dynasties.

Different parts of Daxing have their own signature fruits. According to The Great China Geography written by Lin Chuanjia, Langjiayuan is famous for its jujubes production, Caiyuyin is rich in peaches and apricots, Qianyechang and Houyechang are famous for their mulberry, Gaojiadian has the most pears, peaches and apricots, Luojiazhuang and Lijiabao produce the most hawthorn and hawthorn slices and Panggezhuang has peach, plum and apricot. In addition, Daxing has grapes, nectarines, jujube, radish, green onion, leek and melon seeds.

The reason why Daxing is rich in products is mainly because it is located in the impact plain of Yongding River, and there are more than a dozen rivers in Daxing. The groundwater resources are abundant, which is conducive to the growth of various crops. During the Yongle Period of the Ming dynasty, Shanxi immigrants planted vegetables and fruits for the royal family. The north of Daxing and the central part of Fengtai produced fruits and vegetables for the royal family and therefore, Daxing is known as "Fruit and vegetable garden" in Beijing. In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), fruits and vegetables of Daxing became tributes and the most famous one was the Xihongmen radish.

'South Gate' of the capital

Daxing was part of the Hebei Province before March 1958. On March 7, 1958, the 72nd meeting of the State Council transferred Daxing county from Hebei Province to Beijing. In April of the same year, Jiugong, Yizhuang, Bohai, Xihongmen and other places in the former Nanyuan district of Beijing were transferred to Daxing district. Daxing district was renamed Daxing county on January 7, 1960.

On March 2, 2001, the Beijing Municipal People's Government approved the revocation of Daxing county and the establishment of Daxing district with the approval from the State Council. Due to its jurisdiction being located in the south of Beijing, Daxing is known as the "South Gate" of the capital. The second airport, which is positioned as the world hub, China's national gate, and regional engine, settled in Daxing, and is rapidly driving the development of Daxing.